Christian Grönroos, Hanken School of Economics Finland
Jonas Holmqvist, Kedge Business School, France
Yves Van Vaerenbergh, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Customer experiences due to which language is used in service encounters in bilingual contexts have not been studied until lately. This project studies how customers are influenced by the language used by service employees in bilingual contexts. Key research questions are in which contexts is service in the customer’s first language appreciated, and are there situations where the use of a second language or a language dominating the society other than the customer’s first language lead to a higher level of perceived service quality?

Empirically the project covers multiple bilingual contexts, both in North America and Europe.


Holmqvist, Jonas, Van Vaerenbergh, Yves and Grönroos, Christian (2014): Consumers’ willingness to communicate in a second language: communicating in service settings. Management Decision, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 950-966
doi: 10.1108/MD-07-2013-0364

Holmqvist, Jonas and Grönroos, Christian (2012): How does language matter for services? Challenges and propositions for service research. Journal of Service Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 430-442
(doi: 10.1177/1094670512441997)